This will give you an idea of the format and content. No further distribution without written consent. It has the French Revolution as its background. The novel covers a period of eighteen years.
Psychoanalytic reading has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself, and has developed into a heterogeneous interpretive tradition. Critics may view the fictional characters as a psychological case study, attempting to identify such Freudian concepts as Oedipus complex, penis envy, Freudian slips, Id, ego and superego and so on, and demonstrate how they influenced the thoughts and behaviors of fictional characters.
However, more complex variations of psychoanalytic criticism are possible. Like all forms of literary criticism, psychoanalytic criticism can yield useful clues to the sometime baffling symbols, actions, and settings in a literary work; however, like all forms of literary criticism, it has its limits.
As Guerin, et al.
To see a great work of fiction or a great poem primarily as a psychological case study is often to miss its wider significance and perhaps even the essential aesthetic experience it should provide. Such criticism aims at uncovering the working of the human mind—especially the expression of the unconscious.
Possibilities include analyzing a text like a dream, looking for symbolism and repressed meaning, or developing a psychological analysis of a character.
Three ideas found in the work of Sigmund Freud are particularly useful: Early psychoanalytic literary criticism would often treat the text as if it were a ind of dream.
This means that the text represses its real or latent content behind obvious manifest content. The process of changing from latent to manifest content is known as the dream work, and involves operations of concentration and displacement.
The critic analyzes the language and symbolism of a text to reverse the process of the dream work and arrive at the underlying latent thoughts.
However, Lacanian scholars have noted that Lacan himself was not interested in literary criticism per se, but in how literature might illustrate a psychoanalytic method or concept.
The study implied four different phases: The creative process is akin to dreaming awake: These metaphorical networks are significant of a latent inner reality. They point at an obsession just as dreams can do. A basically unconscious sexual impulse is symbolically fulfilled in a positive and socially gratifying way, a process known as Sublimation.
Cultural examples In Small World: Romance is a multiple orgasm. Psychoanalysis in Literature In a nutshell, the key to understanding the history of psychoanalytic literary criticism is to recognize that literary criticism is about books and psychoanalysis is about minds.
Therefore, the psychoanalytic critic can only talk about the minds associated with the book. And what are those? There are three, and curiously, Freud spelled them out in his very first remarks on literature in the letter to Fliess of October 15, in which he discussed Oedipus Rex. Those are the three people that the psychoanalytic critic can talk about: From the beginning of this field to the present, that cast of characters has never changed: Those are the three minds that the psychoanalytic critic addresses.
How the psychoanalytic critic addresses those minds depends on the orientation of the critic. Is he or she a classical psychoanalyst, an ego psychologist, a Lacanian, a Kleinian, a member of the object-relations school, a Kohutian, and so on?
Each of the various schools in the development of psychoanalysis necessarily produces a different style of psychoanalytic literary criticism.
In the earliest stage of psychoanalytic criticism, the critics did little more than identify oedipus complexes and the occasional symbol or parapraxis in one or another work of literature.
Relevant collections would be: Phillips ; Manheim and Manheim ;; Ruitenbeek In the French critic Charles Mauron made the important point that these different levels of fantasies were all transformations of one another, superimposed, so that one could imagine the human being as a series of geological levels with oral fantasies at the deepest level, then anal, phallic and so on forming and leaving traces of themselves at the higher.
This is, of course, consistent with the continuities we see psychoanalytically in the development of any human being. Again, we often read both the defenses and the fantasies back to the authors, and the result has been distinguished biographies by Leon EdelJustin Kaplan, and Cynthia Griffin Wolff, to name but a few of the many good psychobiographers.
Even more helpfully, we became able to see that literary forms functioned psychologically like various types of defense mechanism. Form works as a defense, both at the level of particular wordings and in larger structures. Our identifications with characters serve in this way, to modulate and direct our feelings as identifications do in life.
A shift of the sensory modality in a poem may serve as a kind of isolation. Symbolizing serves to disguise all kinds of content in literary works. And, of course, omission functions like repression or denial.
See Holland ; Withim ; Rose The idea of form as defense meant that we could talk about literary works that had no characters at all, where one could only talk about form.¶ 11 The first prong of appellant's due process analysis asserts that the sentencing judge's “unfettered” discretion in selecting a life sentence option renders that portion of section (A) void for vagueness.
Dec 03, · David Copperfield by Charles Dickens David Copperfield by Charles Dickens is a heartwarming story that takes place in the 's in England and is about a young boy named David Copperfield. Who goes through many struggles growing up.
In places, dickens even abandons the convoluted sentences common in writings of his era for short action oriented sentences, almost as if foreshadowing the modern screen play oriented faction (fact inspired action) novels.
Frankenstein is an expostulation of humanity, specifically of the human concept of science, enlightenment, technical progress, and a deeply humanistic Published: Fri, 15 Dec Development of Winston Smith in Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for A Tale of Two Cities at yunusemremert.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
Charles dickens essay village england. 6. November Home essay example grade 11 Analysis examples essay use smoking about essay dog bite epic hero essay ideas day with a friend essay tamil essay short writing labour day.
(essay about present continuous negative sentences).