Unlike the extant literature, this research considers these phenomena as marketing instruments used by the mass media and approaches them from business ethics perspective. It aims at determining whether the use of sexuality and violence by the media institutions is ethical according to business ethics theories.
The mass media Newspapersradiotelevisionand the Internet —including e-mail and blog s—are usually less influential than the social environmentbut they are still significant, especially in affirming attitudes and opinions that are already established.
Just before an electionfor example, voters who earlier had only a mild preference for one party or candidate may be inspired by media coverage not only to take the trouble to vote but perhaps also to contribute money or to help a party organization in some other way.
The mass media play another important role by letting individuals know what other people think and by giving political leaders large audiences. In this way the media make it possible for public opinion to encompass large numbers of individuals and wide geographic areas. It appears, in fact, that in some European countries the growth of broadcasting, especially television, affected the operation of the parliamentary system.
Before television, national elections were seen largely as contests between a number of candidates or parties for parliamentary seats. As the electronic media grew more sophisticated technologically, elections increasingly assumed the appearance of a personal struggle between the leaders of the principal parties concerned.
In the United States, presidential candidates have come to personify their parties. Once in office, a president can easily appeal to a national audience over the heads of elected legislative representatives.
In areas where the mass media are thinly spread, as in developing countries or in countries where the media are strictly controlled, word of mouth can sometimes perform the same functions as the press and broadcasting, though on a more limited scale.
In developing countries, it is common for those who are literate to read from newspapers to those who are not, or for large numbers of persons to gather around the village radio or a community television. Word of mouth in the marketplace or neighbourhood then carries the information farther.
In countries where important news is suppressed by the government, a great deal of information is transmitted by rumour. Word of mouth or other forms of person-to-person communicationsuch as text messaging thus becomes the vehicle for underground public opinion in totalitarian countries, even though these processes are slower and usually involve fewer people than in countries where the media network is dense and uncontrolled.
Interest groups Interest group s, nongovernmental organization s NGOsreligious groups, and labour unions trade union s cultivate the formation and spread of public opinion on issues of concern to their constituencies.
These groups may be concerned with political, economic, or ideological issues, and most work through the mass media as well as by word of mouth.
Some of the larger or more affluent interest groups around the world make use of advertising and public relations. One increasingly popular tactic is the informal poll or straw vote. Multiple votes by supporters are often encouraged, and once the group releases its findings to credible media outlets, it claims legitimacy by citing the publication of its poll in a recognized newspaper or online news source.
Reasons for conducting unscientific polls range from their entertainment value to their usefulness in manipulating public opinion, especially by interest groups or issue-specific organizations, some of which exploit straw-poll results as a means of making their causes appear more significant than they actually are.
On any given issue, however, politicians will weigh the relatively disinterested opinions and attitudes of the majority against the committed values of smaller but more-dedicated groups for whom retribution at the ballot box is more likely. Opinion leaders Opinion leaders play a major role in defining popular issues and in influencing individual opinions regarding them.
Political leaders in particular can turn a relatively unknown problem into a national issue if they decide to call attention to it in the media. One of the ways in which opinion leaders rally opinion and smooth out differences among those who are in basic agreement on a subject is by inventing symbols or coining slogans: Once enunciated, symbols and slogans are frequently kept alive and communicated to large audiences by the mass media and may become the cornerstone of public opinion on any given issue.
Opinion leadership is not confined to prominent figures in public life. An opinion leader can be any person to whom others look for guidance on a certain subject. Thus, within a given social group one person may be regarded as especially well-informed about local politics, another as knowledgeable about foreign affairs, and another as expert in real estate.
These local opinion leaders are generally unknown outside their own circle of friends and acquaintances, but their cumulative influence in the formation of public opinion is substantial.
The same is true with regard to changes in public opinion. Some public opinions can be explained by specific events and circumstances, but in other cases the causes are more elusive.
Some opinions, however, are predictable: Hostile public attitudes do not cause poor relations—they are the result of them. People presumably change their own attitudes when they no longer seem to correspond with prevailing circumstances and, hence, fail to serve as guides to action.
Similarly, a specific event, such as a natural disaster or a human tragedy, can heighten awareness of underlying problems or concerns and trigger changes in public opinion. It is nonetheless the case that whether a body of public opinion on a given issue is formed and sustained depends to a significant extent on the attention it receives in the mass media.
Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth During the second half of the 20th century in many parts of the world, attitudes toward religionfamily, sex, international relationssocial welfare, and the economy underwent major shifts.
Although important issues have claimed public attention in all these areas, the scope of change in public attitudes and opinions is difficult to attribute to any major event or even to any complex of events.Use our publication finder to find reports, research & data, case documentation and guidelines.
Sex and Violence in the Media. Sex and violence are common occurences in the media and with the available exposure kids have to media, their behavior, perceptions and personalities can be easily influenced and distorted. The term "intimate partner violence" (IPV) is often used synonymously with domestic abuse/domestic violence. Family violence is a broader definition, often used to include child abuse, elder abuse, and other violent acts between family members. An Introduction to the Issue of Sex and Violence in Media PAGES 1. WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: issue of censorship, issue of sex and violence, sex and violence in media. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. issue of censorship, issue of sex and violence, sex and violence.
Censorship in Australia is called classification and material, though technically being given an advisory rating, can officially be Refused Classification which results in the material being banned. The system also has several levels of "restricted" categories, prohibiting sale, exhibition or use of some materials to those who are under a prescribed age.
Speculation as to the causes of the recent mass shooting at a Batman movie screening in Colorado has reignited debates in the psychiatric community about media violence and its effects on human behavior. The Impact of Media on Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence in India Kuhuk Bhushan May 3, Faculty Advisor: Although issues of domestic violence are a concern worldwide, they are particularly relationship between access to media and attitudes towards domestic violence, because it is.
The statement that follows was approved in October by the Association’s Committee on Women in the Academic Profession and its Subcommittee on Sexual Assault on Campus. Bookmark. College–Level Sociology Curriculum For Introduction to Sociology. Prepared by the American Sociological Association Task Force on a College Level Introduction to Sociology Course.
The Course * Summary Course Outline * Course Narrative. The Course. Purpose: The College-Level Sociology course is designed to introduce students to the sociological study of society.