It offers fine descriptions of opium smuggling from Canada into the U. After that it might be smuggled across the border in small sailboats, hidden on board larger steamers, carried overland through the "almost trackless pine forests of Northern Washington," or shipped further east via the Canadian Pacific Railroad, to be brought into the U.
A blog for those walking away from a life of sex work and for the families of those not fortunate enough to walk away. Thursday, June 4, General Strain Theory, Labeling and Prostitution Literature on prostitution is limited, although with the recent advent of Federal legislation against human trafficking, research is becoming more prevalent.
To battle the trafficking of women, the U. In addition, laws are increasingly being passed to inhibit the trafficking of women and children for prostitution purposes.
Two of the most relevant criminological theories regarding how women slide into prostitution, for few women who work in the sex trade will declare that their life-long career goal was to become a sex worker, are the theories of general strain and labeling.
Prostitutes do not become sex workers in a vacuum. In a study of street prostitutes male, female and transgender, more than 60 percent of the responders had experienced violence during prostitution; 44 percent were raped while engaging in their work; and 42 percent met post traumatic stress disorder PTSD criteria.
Most researchers, however, would argue that this number is probably low. One of the most prolific researchers in this area is Dr. Logically, the higher the number of times raped, the higher the incidence of PTSD among the prostitutes.
Farley and her team interviewed prostitutes both in brothels and on the streets in San Francisco and six large cities in Asia, Africa and Europe. In contrast, the condition is found in less than five percent of the general population. Studies of veterans of combat in the Vietnam War have found that the disorder may be diagnosed in 20 percent to 30 percent, about half of whom have long-term psychiatric problems.
However, whether study participants operated in brothels or worked the streets and although less physical violence occurred in brothels, Farley found in her study that the frequency of the disorder is found uniformly among the various groups of prostitutes. Often, diagnosis is missed by social workers or medical providers who fail to ask important questions to learn if a person seeking help is involved in the sex industry.
Shame often prevents current or former prostitutes from speaking out, much research shows. Rarely able to speak the language of the country where they are shipped, loaded into containers or otherwise concealed, some suffering certain death—this is the truth of international trafficking in women.
There is a spectrum of traumatic disorders, ranging from the effects of a single overwhelming event to the more complicated effects of prolonged and repeated abuse. Taking age into consideration, one study supported other literature that found that those under the age of 18 who had undergone childhood sexual or physical abuse and teenage commercial sexual activity are likely to have higher rates of PTSD than average.
Early intervention for youthful sex workers might alleviate the degree of PTSD they suffer if an earlier escape from a life of prostitution was available.
General Strain Theory There is little literature on prostitution as it relates to the general strain theory, but there is literature on juvenile delinquency and drug use which examines the general strain theory GST which was developed by Emile Durkheim in his study on suicide and refined by Robert Merton and later by Ronald Agnew in the s.
For example, they are in desperate need of money or they believe they are being mistreated by family members, teachers, peers, employers, or others. They become upset, experiencing a range of negative emotions, including anger, frustration, and depression. And they cope with their strains and negative emotions through crime.
Crime may be a way to reduce or escape from strains.
Prostitution frequently begins in adolescence and is considered a delinquent act. Much of the literature on sex workers paints a portrait of early childhood abuse, neglect and confusion. It is important to note, however, according to the strain theory that it is the experience and feelings of anger and frustration from failed attempts at achievement, failure of primary relationships with caregivers, or victimization that leads to the experience of strain.
The coping may be inner directed, with depression, or through substance abuse to mute emotional pain.
The coping may be directed outwardly, such as violent anger, aggression, etc. Labeling Theory The labeling theory found its roots in the early s with studies of symbolic interactionist George Herbert Mead, who believed that the self was totally constructed in relationship to others in society.Read Labeling Theory free essay and over 88, other research documents.
Labeling Theory. Labeling Theory When an individual become labeled as a criminal it becomes their “master status.” “ deviance is not a quality /5(1). LABELING THEORY Sociologyindex, Sociology Books Labeling theory arose from the study of deviance in the late 's and early 's and was a rejection of consensus theory or structural functionalism.
The Labeling Theory The Labeling Theory is a Criminological theory that states those who engage in criminal behavior are not necessarily criminal, or criminal minded. The theory is the view of deviance according to which being labeled as a deviant leads a person to engage in deviant behavior.
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Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and yunusemremert.comng theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those.
Labeling theory is a sociological and criminological theory that says that a strong, negative societal reaction to an individual's wrongdoing can lead the individual to become more deviant. Based.